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Phase relations among muscles or MN activities are commonly used in pattern-generation studies to aid in deciphering the circuit's architecture from its motor output. Here we used the standard deviations of phase differences between MN bursts recorded from different nerves and hemiganglia as manifestations of the strength of coupling between the different underlying oscillatory networks. Our estimation was based on the assumption that strong coupling results in low variability in the phase relations between the oscillators, and vice versa ( Boothe et al., 2013 ; Greene and Spirito, 1979 ; Rillich et al., 2013 ). For every pair of MNs, five bouts were sampled from each of five different preparations ( N =5 animals, n =25 bouts, except for L2Dep:R3Lev: N =3, n =15). To obtain the variability between the selected pairs of MNs, we first calculated the centre-of-gravity (CoG, defined in Materials and methods) of the MN bursts and then the standard deviation of the phase difference between CoGs, separately for each recording bout. Fig.6 A summarizes these standard deviations, and TableS4 summarizes the significance tests among the different groups.

Fig. 6.

Phase relations and phase-locking. (A) Scheme of phase relations s.d., as a measure of coupling strength. Arrow end, levator; round end, depressor; circular connection, coupling between antagonistic MNs within a single hemiganglion. Solid and dashed lines represent pairs of in-phase and anti-phase MN pairs, respectively. Lower s.d. indicates stronger coupling. Endogenous coupling strength was found to be dependent upon these parameters: (i) direction, ipsilateral coupling is stronger than contralateral and diagonal coupling; (ii) hemiganglia involved, contralateral coupling differs between ganglia; and (iii) function of the coupled MNs, coupling between levator and depressor is stronger than between two levators. (B) Phase-locking strength between mesothoracic and metathoracic MNs is asymmetrical and stronger in the ascending pathway. Data for three pairs are normally distributed (Shapiro-Wilk test,  > 0.05) and are presented. Line, box, and whiskers represent mean, s.e.m. and s.d., respectively. Significance level is marked as *<0.05. Transition phase-lock is stronger in the ascending pathway for each of the pairs. Asymmetric phase-locking indicates differences in the mechanisms of coordination in different directions.

We first examined phase relations and found a left-right symmetry in coupling strength, allowing the pooling of data (e.g. mean phase and variability of R2Lev:R3Lev and L2Lev:L3Lev did not differ, nor did those of L2Lev:R2Dep and R2Lev:L2Dep). Coupling between antagonist pairs within a hemiganglion was found to be similar in the meso- and metathorax and significantly stronger than coupling between different hemiganglia (Mann–Whitney test, P <0.05) for all but L2Dep:L3Lev. Inter-hemiganglia coupling of Lev-Dep pairs was found to be greater than that of Lev-Lev pairs. In a comparison between pairs of similar function in different hemiganglia, ipsilateral coupling was found to be stronger than contralateral and diagonal coupling (Mann–Whitney test, P <0.05). Moreover, metathoracic coupling was found to be stronger than mesothoracic coupling (Mann–Whitney test, P =0.044). We found no significant differences between contralateral and diagonal coupling.

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Abstract

Objective. To estimate the prevalence of lumbar internal disc disruption, zygapohyseal joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and soft tissue irritation by fusion hardware in post-fusion low back pain patients compared with non-fused patients utilizing diagnostic spinal procedures.

Objective.

Design. Retrospective chart review.

Design.

Setting. University spine center.

Setting.

Patient Sample. Patients presenting to a community-based, multidisciplinary, academic spine center (65.9% female, mean age 54.4 years, median pain duration 12 months).

Patient Sample.

Interventions. Charts of consecutive low back pain cases completing diagnostic spinal procedures including provocation discography and zygapohyseal joint, sacroiliac joint, and fusion hardware blockade were retrospectively reviewed.

Interventions.

Outcome Measures. Based on the results of discography and/or diagnostic blockades, subjects were classified with internal disc disruption, zygapohyseal joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, or fusion hardware related pain.

Outcome Measures.

Results. The diagnoses of 28 fusion cases identified from 170 low back pain patients undergoing diagnostic procedures included 12 with sacroiliac joint pain, seven with internal disc disruption, five with zygapohyseal joint pain, and four due to soft tissue irritation from fusion hardware. No significant differences were noted in zygapohyseal joint mediated pain with and without fusion history. Mean ages of patients were similar with and without fusion history for cases diagnosed as internal disc disruption.

Results.

Conclusion. In patients' recalcitrant to non-interventional care, the sacroiliac joint is the most likely source of low back pain after lumbar fusion followed by internal disc disruption, zygapohyseal joint pain, and soft tissue irritation due to fusion hardware. Sacroiliac joint pain is more common after fusion, while internal disc disruption is more common in non-fusion patients.

Conclusion.
, , , , ,
Topic:
Issue Section:

As recently as 5 years ago, approximately over 700,000 lumbar spine fusion surgeries were performed in the United States annually [1] . A respectable proportion of these patients will experience persistent or new low back pain (LBP) post-operatively due to various etiologies [2–9] . Collectively, cases of recurrent LBP and/or lower limb pain after lumbar fusion have been referred to as “Failed Back Surgery Syndrome” [3–9] . However, such a phrase is non-descriptive and not diagnostic [8] . Potential explanations for LBP after lumbar fusion include pseudoarthrosis, discogenic pain at a previously fused [10] or adjacent level, adjacent level zygapohyseal joint arthropathy (ZJA), sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD) [8,11] , or fusion hardware related LBP [12] . Other conditions such as epidural/perineural fibrosus, arachnoiditis, or latent spinal stenosis [8,11] would present with more significant lower limb symptoms than axial LBP [8] .

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Introduction to Teaching English as a Second Language - Syntactic Processing

China 0 0 19 October 2017
Maureen A.

This topic is very good and interesting.

Colombia 0 0 09 April 2017
Monica Yohana H.

Very Good topic, thanks

Colombia 0 0 09 April 2017
Felipe V.

Understanding syntactic processing is the heart of truly beginning to master a language many structures come into play in deriving meaning to language acquisition. Timelines for tenses different parts of speech and multiple grammar are all integrated to show good understanding.

Colombia 0 0 08 April 2017
Federico H.

Very Good! Thanks.

Saudi Arabia 0 0 08 April 2017
Abdul Kareem M.

Interesting to know that best approach to getting students' to better understand grammar is through teaching it through the four skills .

Saudi Arabia 0 0 08 April 2017
Abdul Kareem M.

Why do some students prefer more true and false exercises than cloze exercises?

Cambodia 0 0 08 April 2017
Ifeanyichukwu O.

This section is well-thought out and very useful and very deep in aiding ESL instructors on guidelines of grammar comprehension

Poland 0 0 08 April 2017
Maria K.

This section is well-thought out and very useful. Thank you!

Philippines 0 0 08 April 2017
Ma. Myrna L.

Why is there a need to know about syntactic processing?

India 0 0 08 April 2017
Sonal B.

Activities for understanding use of grammar and vocabulary is necessary which would help in "Syntactic processing" involving understanding the structures of the language and making connections among words in a sentence or among sentences and paragraphs in a text.

Introduction to Teaching English as a Second Language - Syntactic Processing

Syntactic Processing Syntactic processing is the understanding of the structure of a language, and the ability to use that structure to derive meaning. Grammar learning is most effective when it is integrated into content, context, and other language skills such as reading, writing, speaking, and listening, rather than presented in isolation. For example, some prepositions are very hard to remember. However, if instructors play a game, students have fun, and at the same time, they are teaching the grammar knowledge that students need. One activity that works well is making a timeline using vocabulary and images. Timelines allow adults to reflect on their own past, present, and future circumstances. They also give them a chance to learn vocabulary targeted to the specifics of their own lives, as well as a perfect opportunity to learn about past, present, and future tenses, personal pronouns, and even sequencing using the English language. Syntactic processing involves understanding the structures of the language and making connections among words in a sentence or among sentences and paragraphs in a text. Learners should know common prefixes and suffixes, past tense endings and the passive voice and words that connect thoughts. \"Therefore\" is an example of a word that connects thoughts. Grammar instruction should be integrated with reading instruction, with learners’ attention directed to syntactic structures in reading texts. Instructors can also help build learners’ knowledge of grammar and syntax by having them complete a cloze exercise. The cloze exercise is an exercise in which specific words are left out of a text with blanks that learners have to fill in. Learners could be asked to do exercises that focus on nouns, verbs or adjectives. To provide support for students, all exercises can be done as a whole class, then in groups and then individually.

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7. Syntactic Processing

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Margo A. Halm Kathryn Krisko-Hagel Corresponding author:

A regular feature of the American Journal of Critical Care, Clinical Evidence Review unveils available scientific evidence to answer questions faced in contemporary clinical practice. It is intended to support, refute, or shed light on healthcare practices where little evidence exists. To send an eLetter or to contribute to an online discussion about this article, visit Sale Store SHIRTS Blouses Unsigned Clearance Sale Buy Cheap Amazing Price Prices Cheap Price Genuine Cheap Price i3Q4GRveKf
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Clinical Evidence Review www.ajcconline.org

Normal saline has been widely used in acute care settings during endotracheal and tracheostomy suctioning. Clinicians have held fast to this longstanding tradition because many were taught that normal saline breaks up secretions and aids in their removal (especially tenacious secretions). In this clinical review, we summarize current evidence related to the following questions: Does instilling normal saline during suctioning increase sputum yield? Alternatively, is this practice associated with adverse physiological and psychological effects?

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Methods

The strategy included searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute, and TRIP databases. Key words included endotracheal tubes, tracheostomies, normal saline, and suctioning . All types of evidence (nonexperimental, experimental, qualitative studies, systematic reviews) were included.

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In the past 2 decades, investigators have studied the physiological and psychological effects of instillation of normal saline. The impact of the instillation of normal saline on sputum recovery, oxygenation, subjective symptoms, hemodynamic alterations, and infection was measured in 14 studies W NSW TOP LS AIR TOPWEAR Tshirts Nike Outlet Locations For Sale Official Site Cheap Online Best Prices Clearance Eastbay GpNNd
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). The effects of 2, 5, or 8 mL of normal saline on physiological parameters were evaluated at intervals of 5, 10, or 20 minutes (5 minutes most common). In one study, 1 researchers investigated saline deposition by radioactively labeling normal saline with technetium (Tc 99m). Samples included anesthetized dogs and ventilator-dependent patients in general, coronary artery bypass, and neurological intensive care units (ICUs). In addition to these studies, a guideline on tracheal suctioning from the Joanna Briggs Institute 15 was retrieved.

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